The Shilin Karst area has the following types of forests and plant communities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The C9orf72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport. Under the microscope, single whole or fractured fusulinid foraminifera are seen, commonly in biomicrite, biopelmicrite to biopelmicrosparite limestones. There were some differences in expansion size and morphology between DNA samples from tissue and cell lines.
Expression array analysis detected C9ORF72 expression in all brain regions examined and spinal cord, with highest expression in cerebellum. Methylation changes were not detected in either normal or intermediate alleles up to 43 repeats , raising the question of whether the cutoff of 30 repeats for pathologic alleles was adequate. Simultaneously and independently, Renton et al.
Retrieved from " https: C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansions of 20-22 repeats are associated with frontotemporal deterioration. Sandstones and shales of Liangshan Formation that lies below the carbonate rock formations serve as a permeability barrier and force the local groundwater to flow from west to east. In vitro reporter gene expression studies showed significantly decreased transcriptional activity of C9ORF72 with increasing number of normal repeat units, consistent with a loss of function. Webarchive template wayback links CS1 Chinese-language sources zh Articles containing Chinese-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata Coordinates on Wikidata. These formations extend as far as the eye can see, looking like a vast forest of stone, hence the name "the Stone Forest".
Using 2 methods, Xi et al. Simultaneously and independently, Renton et al. The expanded repeat is located in the promoter region of C9ORF72 transcript variant 1 and in intron 1 of transcript variants 2 and 3. Postmortem examination of a small number of cases showed TDP43 605078 and p62 601530 deposits in the brain. The average number of pathogenic repeats on the disease haplotype was 8, with a spread of expanded alleles up to 26. While the OMIM database is open to the public, users seeking information about a personal medical or genetic condition are urged to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to personal questions.
Immunofluorescence studies indicated that C9ORF72 was expressed within vesicles in the nucleus and cytoplasm of human and mouse neuronal cell lines. The authors expressed 66 G4C2 repeats G4C2 66 throughout the murine CNS via somatic brain transgenesis mediated by adeno-associated virus. This page was last edited on 7 February 2019, at 10: Four patients had more than 30 repeats, whereas 4 had 20 repeats and 1 had 22 repeats. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of expression in frontal cortex tissue from patients and controls did not detect conclusive changes in RNA levels and produced inconsistent results.
Exon 1a in variant 2 uses a different 3-prime donor site than that used by exon 1a in variant 3. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. Archived from the original on April 12, 2006.
These findings were consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. The authors argued that single-factor targeting has advantages over targeting sense and antisense repeats separately. Intermediate repeats 7 to 24 repeat units were found to be strongly correlated with the risk haplotype tagged by a T allele of SNP rs2814707. The average number of pathogenic repeats on the disease haplotype was 8, with a spread of expanded alleles up to 26. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. The most prevalent number of repeats on other haplotypes was 2.
Yunnan Provincial Government Website. When applied to cultured cells, both GR 20 and PR 20 peptides entered cells, migrated to the nucleus, bound nucleoli, and poisoned RNA biogenesis, which caused cell death. Expert curators review the literature and organize it to facilitate your work.
The most prevalent number of repeats on other haplotypes was 2. Intermediate repeats 7 to 24 repeat units were found to be strongly correlated with the risk haplotype tagged by a T allele of SNP rs2814707. Looking For More References? Archived from the original on April 12, 2006. A metaanalysis of the data and that of other European studies, including a total of 2,668 patients from 15 countries, showed that the frequency of C9ORF72 expansions in Western Europe was 9. The authors expressed 66 G4C2 repeats G4C2 66 throughout the murine CNS via somatic brain transgenesis mediated by adeno-associated virus.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. The findings suggested that the background disease haplotype is intrinsically unstable, tending to generate longer repeats. Using proteomic and immunoprecipitation analyses, Ciura et al. Expert curators review the literature and organize it to facilitate your work. Tissue from affected individuals showed reduced or absent mRNA levels of C9ORF72 variants 1 and 3 compared to nonrepeat carriers, consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. The structural polymorphism causes a repeat length-dependent accumulation of transcripts aborted in the HRE region.
Variant 2 was highly expressed in testis, fetal brain, cerebellum, and frontal cortex, with lower expression in kidney, lung, and hippocampus, and no expression in liver and lymphoblasts. They aggregate 505m in thickness and consist of shallow water platform massive limestone and dolomite, bio-clastic limestone, calcarenite and calcilutite. At least one zone of chert nodules occurs in the limestone. When applied to cultured cells, both GR 20 and PR 20 peptides entered cells, migrated to the nucleus, bound nucleoli, and poisoned RNA biogenesis, which caused cell death. Extensive deposits of sandstone overlain by limestone accumulated in this basin during the Permian period of geologic time. Autophagy induction was compromised by knockdown of C9orf72 and was also disrupted in cells lacking both C9orf72 and Smcr8.